Notes to D. Michael Quinn’s: “The Culture of Violence in Joseph Smith’s Mormonism” Part II

100.  LeSueur, The 1838 Mormon War in Missouri, 138, 144-52. While Anderson, “Clarifications of Bogg’s [sic] `Order’ and Joseph Smith’s Constitutionalism” acknowledges that the Boggs extermination order responded to what Anderson calls “the hot skirmish at Crooked River” (45), he emphasizes the “unfounded rumors” (45), “the upcoming fictitious attack on the county seat” (46), the “false rumors” (47), “this mythical Mormon offensive” (48) described by Missourians, and then dismisses Crooked River as “the attack of 70 Mormons on a state patrol of 50, which was intimidating Mormon settlers instead of acting on defensive orders” (48). Anderson argues at length (27-47) that the governor simply ratified long-standing calls for expulsion by anti-Mormons. Thus (47), Boggs “served special interests in upper Missouri when they demanded extermination orders. This executive was more conduit than commander” in issuing the October 1838 extermination order against the Mormons.

101.  History of the Church, 3: 58-322; Gentry, “History of the Latter-day Saints in Northern Missouri,” 527-98; Leonard J. Arrington, “Church Leaders in Liberty Jail,” BYU Studies 12 (Autumn 1972): 20-26; Dean C. Jessee, “`Walls, Grates and Screeking Iron Doors’: The Prison Experience of Mormon Leaders in Missouri, 1838-1839,” in Davis Bitton and Maureen Ursenbach Beecher, eds., New Views of Mormon History: A Collection of Essays in Honor of Leonard J. Arrington (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1987), 19-42; LeSueur, The 1838 Mormon War in Missouri, 46-48, 63-263, 125n35; Hill, Quest for Refuge, 75, 76, 92, 225n65.

102.  Which is exactly what Richard L. Anderson did in his “Clarifications of Bogg’s [sic] `Order’ and Joseph Smith’s Constitutionalism,” 68.

103.  Document Containing the Correspondence, Orders, &c In Relation to the Disturbances With the Mormons, 102; Jessee, Papers of Joseph Smith, 2: 42n2.

104.  Robert Bruce Flanders, Nauvoo: Kingdom on the Mississippi (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1965), 19; Kenneth Gordon Crider, “Rhetorical Aspects of the Controversies Over Mormonism in Illinois, 1839-1847,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1956, 270-71; Kenneth W. Godfrey, “Causes of the Mormon Non-Mormon Conflict in Hancock County, Illinois, 1839-1846,” Ph.D. dissertation, Brigham Young University, 1967, 43-47; Andrew F. Smith, Saintly Scoundrel: The Life and Times of Dr. John Cook Bennett (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997), 58-61.

105.  History of the Church, 5: 3-4, 56, 369, 383-84, 6: 34; Hamilton Gardner, “The Nauvoo Legion, 1840-1845: A Unique Military Organization,” in Roger D. Launius and John E. Hallwas, eds., Kingdom on the Mississippi Revisited: Nauvoo in Mormon History (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996), 53 (for lieutenant-general rank), 57 (for “an estimated five thousand members”); with lower estimates in John Sweeney Jr., “A History of the Nauvoo Legion In Illinois,” M.A. thesis, Brigham Young University, 1974, 70, 73; compared with Thomas H.S. Hamersly, Regular Army Register of the United States, 1779-1879 (Washington: By the author, 1880), 84-89.

106.  History of the Church, 5: 482.

107.  See discussion in narrative-text for Note 124.

108.  History of the Church, 1: 434, 3: 81, 204, 328, 5: 15; “Mormons Held Boggs Responsible For Their Hardships,” in L. Dean Marriott, “Lilburn W. Boggs: Interaction With Mormons Following Their Expulsion From Missouri,” Ed.D. dissertation, Brigham Young University, 1979, 27-30.

109.  Alanson Ripley to “Dear brethren in Christ Jesus,” with Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Caleb Baldwin, Alexander McRae, and Lyman Wight identified by initials at the end of letter, 10 April 1839, Joseph Smith letterbook 2: 17, Smith papers, original in LDS Archives, with microfilm copies at Community of Christ Archives, at Lee Library, and at Marriott Library; quoted in Hill, Quest for Refuge, 100.

110.  William Clayton diary, 1 January 1845, in George D. Smith, ed., An Intimate Chronicle: The Journals of William Clayton (Salt Lake City: Signature Books/Smith Research Associates, 1991), 153, gives the earliest available statement of the revelation’s text but does not date it. The earliest known statement that this revelation occurred on 7 April 1842 is Council of Fifty minutes, 10 April 1880, typed copy, Lee Library, also in Joseph F. Smith diary, 10 April 1880, LDS Archives (with complete transcription in Quinn’s research files, Beinecke Library), and in Andrew F. Ehat, “`It Seems Like Heaven Began on Earth’: Joseph Smith and the Constitution of the Kingdom of God,” BYU Studies 20 (Spring 1980): 254n3. Restatements and slight variations of this council’s long name (given by the 1842 revelation) appear in Kenney, Wilford Woodruff’s Journal: 1833-1898 Typescript, 3 (29 May 1847): 188; John D. Lee diary, 3 March 1849, in Robert Glass Cleland and Juanita Brooks, eds., A Mormon Chronicle: The Diaries of John D. Lee, 1848-1876, 2 vols. (San Marino, CA: The Henry E. Huntington Library, 1955), 1: 98; Joseph F. Smith diary, 16 March 1880; Franklin D. Richards diary, 16 March 1880, LDS Archives, Council of Fifty minutes, 10 April 1880, LDS Archives, Joseph F. Smith memorandum, 31 December 1880, LDS Archives (with complete transcriptions of the above in Quinn’s research files, Beinecke Library); Abraham H. Cannon diary, 9 October 1884, Lee Library, Marriott Library, and Utah State Historical Society; John Taylor revelation of 27 June 1882, in Annie Taylor Hyde notebook, 67, LDS Archives, with complete transcription in Quinn’s research files, Beinecke Library; and in Fred C. Collier, Unpublished Revelations of the Prophets and Presidents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2nd ed. (Salt Lake City: Collier’s Publishing Co., 1981), 134, verse 29.

111.  The Wasp (Nauvoo, IL), 28 May 1842.

112.  William Law statement, 31 July 1887, in Lyndon W. Cook, ed., William Law: Biographical Essay, Nauvoo Diary, Correspondence (Orem, UT: Grandin Book Co., 1994), 116-17.

113.  Jonas Hobart affidavit on 9 July 1842 (for quote); Samuel Marshall affidavit on 9 July 1842 (for third person paraphrase of quote), both in John C. Bennett, The History of the Saints … (Boston: Leland and Whiting, 1842), 285. Lacking the effusiveness and sensationalism that Bennett and his allies typically used, these affidavits quoted/paraphrased Rockwell’s guarded and not-quite-incriminating statement. Under the circumstances, the affidavits sound like unexaggerated statements of what Hobart and Marshall actually heard him say.

114.  Quoted in Harold Schindler, Orrin Porter Rockwell: Man of God, Son of Thunder (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1966), 80.

115.  William M. Boggs, “A Short Biographical Sketch of Lilburn W. Boggs, By His Son,” Missouri Historical Review 4 (January 1910): 107; also Nicholas Van Alfen, Orrin Porter Rockwell: The Frontier Mormon Marshal (Logan, UT: LDS Institute of Religion, 1964), 20-32; Monte B. McLaws, “The Attempted Assassination of Missouri’s Ex-Governor, Lilburn W. Boggs,” Missouri Historical Review 60 (October 1965): 50-62; Flanders, Nauvoo, 104-05; Schindler, Orrin Porter Rockwell, 74-109; Richard Lloyd Dewey, Porter Rockwell: The Definitive Biography (New York: Paramount Books, 1986), 49-77.

116.  Joseph Smith letter to Mr. Bartlett, 22 May 1842, in Quincy Whig (Quincy, IL), 4 June 1842; Joseph Smith letter to the editor, 27 May 1842, in Quincy Herald (Quincy, IL), 2 June 1842; History of the Church, 5: 9, 15, 6: 151.

117.  History of the Church, 5: 4, 13; Book of the Law of the Lord, 19 May 1842, in Jessee, Papers of Joseph Smith, 2: 384; The Wasp (Nauvoo, IL), 21 May 1842, [3], 4 June 1842, [3]. The Night Watch in 1842 included Dimick B. Huntington, William D. Huntington, Lucius N. Scovil, Charles Allen, Albert P. Rockwood, Noah Rogers, Shadrach Roundy, Josiah Arnold, David H. Redfield, Hiram Clark, S.B. Hicks, Erastus H. Derby, John A. Forgeus, Gilbert D. Goldsmith, Daniel Carn, and John G. Luce. See appendix, “Danites in 1838: A Partial List,” in Origins of Power, [479]-490.

118.  History of the Church, 5: 4.

119.  James B. Allen, Trials of Discipleship: The Story of William Clayton, A Mormon (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987), 140. Based on the list of Smith’s personal staff and “guards” in the Nauvoo Legion as of February 1841 (History of the Church, 4: 296), Hartley, My Best For the Kingdom, 120, lists as Smith’s twelve bodyguards the following men: John L. Butler, Thomas Grover, Christian M. Kremeyer, John Snyder, Alpheus Cutler, Reynolds Cahoon, Henry G. Sherwood, Shadrach Roundy, Vinson Knight, James Allred, Elias Higbee, and Samuel H. Smith. A problem with this list is that it omits Orrin Porter Rockwell, widely known as one of Smith’s bodyguards. Hartley also omits Albert P. Rockwood, the actual commander of the “lifeguards,” with the explanation that the 1841 entry in History of the Church listed Rockwood only as a “drill master” with the Nauvoo Legion. Apparently, Smith’s “lifeguards” in the Nauvoo Legion were for ceremonial purposes and overlapped with his actual bodyguards who were “ordained” to protect his life. For sources about the Danite affiliation of the above men, see appendix, “Danites in 1838: A Partial List,” in Origins of Power, [479]-490.

120.  L.B. Fleak (at Keokuk, Iowa) to Governor Thomas Reynolds, 4 December 1842, folder 14346, box 319, Reynolds Correspondence, Missouri State Archives, Joseph City, Missouri, with transcription in Warren A. Jennings, “Two Iowa Postmasters View Nauvoo: Anti-Mormon Letters to the Governor of Missouri,” BYU Studies 11 (Spring 1971): 286. For the context of why Missouri’s governor was receiving reports from attempted kidnappers, see George R. Gayler, “Attempts by the State of Missouri to Extradite Joseph Smith, 1841-1843,” Missouri Historical Review 58 (October 1963): 21-36.

121.  Joseph Smith diary, 1 January 1843, in Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 267; History of the Church, 5: 216, deleted this entry; see Note 26, last sentence.

122.  History of the Church, 5: 285.

123.  History of the Church, 5: 316.

124.  Joseph Smith diary, 5 March 1843, in Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 326; phrased differently in History of the Church, 5: 296 (“I will shoot him, or cut off his head, spill his blood on the ground,” also “on that subject”); see Note 26, last sentence.

The LDS Church’s official history changed the phrase to “cut off his head” as an apparent effort to make readers think the founding prophet was referring to the civil execution by decapitation as practiced in the decades-earlier French Revolution. However, Smith’s actual phrase “cut his throat” replayed the throat-cutting threats by Missouri Danites (including Sidney Rigdon) in 1838 (see quotes for previous notes 82 and 83). The LDS prophet’s 1843 statement was also an official precedent for Counselor Rigdon’s throat-slitting statement to April 1844 general conference (see quote in narrative for Note 149).

Smith’s 1843 statement was also an obvious precedent for Brigham Young’s similar phrases in his published sermons about “blood atonement” during the 1850s (see Note 152). Published in Salt Lake City, the LDS Church’s official History of the Church, 5: 296 even described Smith’s remarks as “The Questions of `Currency’ and Blood Atonement, in the Nauvoo City Council.” Notice that its editors did not put quotation marks around Blood Atonement, but did for “Currency.”

125.  Joseph Smith statement, manuscript minutes of 6 April 1843 conference, first version (page 10), and with quoted words lined out in second version (page 4), both documents in LDS Archives, with complete transcriptions in Quinn’s research files, Beinecke Library. This statement by Joseph Smith is absent from the report of his remarks in Times and Seasons, History of the Church, and in Andrew F. Ehat and Lyndon W. Cook, eds., The Words of Joseph Smith: The Contemporary Accounts of the Nauvoo Discourses of the Prophet Joseph (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1980), 173-81.

126.  John L. Butler reminiscence, in Journal History, 6 August 1838, page 6.

127.  History of the Church, 5: 473.

128.  History of the Church, 5: 524, 531; Joseph Smith diary, 13 August 1843, in Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 405; see Note 26, last sentence; also Allen, Trials of Discipleship, 114-15, 144n15.

129.  William Clayton diary, 1 August 1843, in Smith, An Intimate Chronicle, 114; History of the Church, 5: 531.

In Warsaw Message (Warsaw, IL) (11 October 1843), [1-2], Bagby wrote that Joseph Smith “insulted me in the grossest manner, without any provocation, (as I think will appear in the sequel) and at time too, when I was enfeebled by long and severe illness, being then but just able to walk … and what, Mr. Editor, may you suppose was the cause of this attack? Why simply because, as collector of the county, I advertised, according to law, a certain lot in Nauvoo, to which he afterwards set up a claim. Such was the ostensible cause that produced the cause above alluded to.

“… And I would here remark, that, but for the timely interference of Dan’l H. Wells Esq., who happened to be near, and who nobly throwed himself into the breach, I would, doubtless, have suffered great personal injury, by the dastardly beast [Smith], whose fury increased in an inverse ratio to his discovery of my entire inability from the effect of disease, and the want of suitable weapons, to resist his brutal violence.”

130.  History of the Church, 5: 34; Joseph Smith diary, 17 September 1843, in Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 414, specified “under officers”; see Note 26, last sentence.

131.  “The Last Case At Nauvoo,” Warsaw Message (Warsaw, IL), 27 September 1843, [3]. Bennett’s first name was not given in this long article, nor in the first reference to this altercation “on Sunday last” in Warsaw Message (20 September 1843), [2]. However, Smith’s excommunicated counselor John C. Bennett was not “one of our citizens” at Warsaw.

132.  “Story as related to me by Ira N. Spaulding of East Weber,” in “THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF DAVID OSBORN, SENIOR Started in February 1860,” Lee Library, with complete transcription in GospeLink 2001 CD-ROM (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2001), and on the Internet at, accessed on 3 March 2011; also quoted in Richard Lyman Bushman, “The Character of Joseph Smith,” BYU Studies 42, No. 2 (2003): 23-34. Spaulding died in 1882 at Uintah, Weber County, Utah. One of his children was born in Nauvoo in 1844. See “Ancestral File” of the LDS Church, available on the Internet at

133.  Alexander L. Baugh, “Joseph Smith’s Athletic Nature,” in Susan Easton Black and Charles D. Tate Jr., eds., Joseph Smith: The Prophet, The Man (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1993), 140.

134.  For example, Isaac M. Dwight, To the public, Augusta, Dec’r 2d, 1823 (Augusta, GA: N.p., 1823). This broadside was a refutation of printed charges posted by Thomas Broughton Jr., accusing the author of being “a bullying coward, a braggadocio in words and a poultroon in deeds.”

135.  Phebe Wheeler Olney statement, written between November 1843 and April 1844 on the back of Susan McKee Culbertson’s application for membership in the Nauvoo Relief Society, 21 [July] 1843, uncatalogued manuscripts, Beinecke Library. Nauvoo’s 1842 census showed “Phoebe” Wheeler as the first of the six girls residing as house servants with the Joseph Smith family. Despite her marriage to Oliver Olney on 19 October 1843, performed by Patriarch Hyrum Smith, Phebe apparently continued as a servant in the Smith home until 1844. Its unrelated reference to “Mrs Sagers” indicates that this entry dates from November 1843 to April 1844, when the marital complaints of Mrs. Harrison Sagers involved the high council. The more likely time period for discussion of the Harrison case in the Smith household was November 1843, the only time Smith’s manuscript diary referred to the complaint against Harrison. See Joseph Smith diary, 25 November 1843, in Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 428; Nauvoo high council minutes, 25 November 1843, 14 April 1844; History of the Church, 6: 118, 333 (which retroactively adds the April 1844 reference to Sagers as if it were part of Smith’s diary); Nauvoo 1842 census in Lyman De Platt, Nauvoo: Early Mormon Records Series (Highland, UT: By the author, 1980), 86; Lyndon W. Cook, comp., Nauvoo Deaths and Marriages, 1839-1845 (Orem, UT: Grandin Book Co., 1994), 107; also Joseph Smith diary, 2 March 1843 to 21 January 1844, in Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 314, 323, 324, 334, 335, 336, 337, 373, 388, 403, 412, 424, 433, 438, 442, for his positive or neutral references to Foster; see Note 26, last sentence. Smith’s next reference (460) described Foster as a dissenter trying to destroy him. History of the Church, 5: 369, 6: 355, for Foster’s positions in the Nauvoo Legion.

136.  History of the Church, 6: 149-50; compare appendix, “Danites in 1838: A Partial List,” in Origins of Power, [479]-490.

137.  Statements by Eli Norton and Daniel Carn in presence of Mayor Joseph Smith, Nauvoo City Council Minutes, 3 January 1844, LDS Archives, with complete transcription in Cook, William Law, 40n-41n.

138.  History of the Church, 6: 151, 152, 166-70; William Law diary, 2-5 January 1844, in Cook, William Law, 38-45.

139.  Lawrence Foster, Religion and Sexuality: Three American Communal Experiments of the Nineteenth Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981), 147, 177; John Frederick Glaser, “The Disaffection of William Law,” Restoration Studies 3 (1986): 163-77; Cook, William Law, passim; Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, 3, 476-77, 549.

140.  Church History in the Fulness of Times, 270; Origins of Power, 120-22, also appendix, “Members of the Council of Fifty, 1844-45, Ranking as of 27 June 1844 (at Joseph Smith’s death),” [521]-528; Ehat, “`It Seems Like Heaven Began on Earth,'” passim.

141.  George T.M. Davis, An Authentic Account of the Massacre of Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet, and Hyrum Smith, His Brother, Together with a Brief History of the Rise and Progress of Mormonism, And All the Circumstances Which Led to Their Deaths (St. Louis: Chambers and Knapp, 1844), 7, emphasis in original. Davis, a newspaper editor, was in Nauvoo gathering information just before Joseph Smith’s death. See History of the Church, 6: 587.

142.  Council of Fifty minutes by Joseph F. Smith, 12 October 1880, emphasis in original, LDS Archives, with modified transcription in “jfs box 11 [page] 14-14-14-14,” in folder 6, box 6, Scott G. Kenney papers, Marriott Library, and complete transcription in Quinn’s research files, Beinecke Library; also discussion in Origins of Power, 128-29.

143.  Hartley, My Best For the Kingdom, 50. For the documentary evidence on which his statement is based, see Document Containing the Correspondence, Orders, &c In Relation to the Disturbances With the Mormons, 97 (which was quoted by Schindler, Orrin Porter Rockwell, 46-47, and by Roberts, Comprehensive History, 1: 501; also variant of the oath in William Swartzell daily journal, 21 July 1838, in his Mormonism Exposed, 22. In his manuscript autobiography (1807-51), pages 120, 125 (for August 1838) at LDS Archives, lifelong Mormon Luman A. Shurtliff verified that the Danites took a solemn “oath,” without giving its details. His reference to “oath” was removed in the typescript, “Luman Andros Shurtliff: My Grandfather, 1807,” at Utah State Historical Society.

However, David J. Whittaker, “The Book of Daniel in Early Mormon Thought,” in John M. Lundquist and Stephen D. Ricks, eds., By Study and Also By Faith, 2 vols. (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., and Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1990), 1: 171, observes that in the letters of Albert P. Rockwood to his relatives about the Danites in 1838, “nowhere is there the cutthroat secrecy that Avard later succeeded in convincing Judge Austin King and the non-Mormon public that there was.” However, since Rockwood as a Danite was already bound by a penal oath of secrecy (as friendly Mormon sources verify was the case), he understandably did not volunteer that information to his uninitiated relatives. Whittaker’s argument is the fallacy of irrelevant proof.

144.  Compare appendix, “Danites in 1838: A Partial List,” in Origins of Power, [479]-490 with its appendix, “Members of the Council of Fifty, 1844-45, Ranking as of 27 June 1844 (at Joseph Smith’s death),” [521]-528.

145.  History of the Church, 6: 270, 274-77, 282-83, 286, 286n; Faulring, An American Prophet’s Record, 461, 463; William Clayton diary, 4 April 1844, in Smith, An Intimate Chronicle, 128; Ehat, “`It Seems Like Heaven Began on Earth,'” 275.

146.  “WHO SHALL BE OUR NEXT PRESIDENT?” in Nauvoo Neighbor (Nauvoo, IL), 14 February 1844, [2], and in Times and Seasons 5 (15 February 1844): 441; also History of the Church, 6: 64-65, 144, 155-60, 376-77, 428-29, 439; Hill, Joseph Smith, 374-75.

147.  Uriah Brown to Brigham Young, 3 November 1845, LDS Archives; statements of Phineas Young and Almon W. Babbitt, in Council of Fifty minutes, 25 August 1851, LDS Archives, with complete transcriptions of the above in Quinn’s research files, Beinecke Library; also Origins of Power, 127-28, for discussions of the three non-Mormons in Smith’s theocratic Council of Fifty.

148.  U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Report of the Committee on Naval Affairs, On the Petition of Uriah Brown, January 27, 1815. Read and Ordered To Lie On the Table, document 53 in State Papers, 3rd Session, 13th Congress (Washington, D.C.: Roger C. Weightman, 1815), whose one-page text stated in part: “The committee on naval affairs, to whom was referred the memorial of Uriah Brown, together with the report of the acting secretary of the navy, have, according to order, had the said memorial and report under consideration, and thereupon submit the following report: … many difficulties would be presented to the execution of such a plan, as it is represented by the memorialist, that to be able to effect it, the vessel carrying the materials must approach within three or four hundred feet of the vessel to be attacked. The memorialist supposes that fifty thousand dollars would be necessary to carry his plan into execution; the committee taking into consideration the present situation of the finances … think it would be inexpedient at this time to authorize an appropriation for the purpose proposed by the memorialist.”

149.  Sidney Rigdon sermon on 6 April 1844, compiled on 24 April 1844 by Thomas Bullock, LDS Archives, with complete transcription in Quinn’s research files, Beinecke Library; deleted from the published report.

150.  Church History in the Fulness of Times, 281, for photograph of the “six-shooter” Joseph Smith used and the single-shot handgun he gave his brother Hyrum who declined to fire it. John Hay, “The Mormon Prophet’s Tragedy,” Atlantic Monthly 24 (December 1869): 675, identified three men who were shot by Joseph Smith: John Wills in the arm, William Vorhees in the shoulder, and William Gallagher in the face. Hay was a son of Charles Hay, a surgeon of the Carthage militia and apparently a member of the mob. Church History in the Fulness of Times, 282, agrees that Smith wounded three men.

151.  Origins of Power, 176-81; Marshall Hamilton, “From Assassination to Expulsion: Two years of Distrust, Hostility, and Violence,” in Launius and Hallwas, Kingdom on the Mississippi Revisited, 214-30; John E. Hallwas and Roger D. Launius, eds., Cultures in Conflict: A Documentary History of the Mormon War in Illinois (Logan: Utah State University Press, 1995).

152.  John Smith (former Danite) patriarchal blessing to John Smith (b. 1832), 22 January 1845, quoted in Irene M. Bates, “Patriarchal Blessings and the Routinization of Charisma,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 26 (Fall 1993): 12, 12n45, 21; Hosea Stout diary, 27 September 1845, in Juanita Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier: The Diary of Hosea Stout, 1844-1861, 2 vols. (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1964), 1: 76; Elden J. Watson, ed., MANUSCRIPT HISTORY of Brigham Young, 1846-1847 (Salt Lake City: By the author, 1971), 480 (24 February 1847); Elisha H. Groves patriarchal blessing to William H. Dame, 20 February 1854, in Harold W. Pease, “The Life and Works of William Horne Dame,” M.A. thesis, Brigham Young University, 1971, 64-66; Groves patriarchal blessing to William Leany, 23 February 1854, in Leany autobiography, 8, typescript in Utah State Historical Society; “DISCOURSE By Jedediah M. Grant, Tabernacle, G.S.L. City, March 12th 1851 [1854],” Deseret News [weekly], 27 July 1854, [2]; “REMARKS By President J. M. Grant, Bowery, Sunday Morning, Sept. 21, 1856,” Deseret News [weekly], 1 October 1856, 235; Elisha H. Groves patriarchal blessing to Joseph Fish, 30 January 1857, in Paul H. Peterson, “The Mormon Reformation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Brigham Young University, 1981, 192; Isaac Morley (former Danite) patriarchal blessing to Philip Klingensmith, 28 May 1857, in Anna Jean Backus, Mountain Meadows Witness: The Life and Times of Bishop Philip Klingensmith (Spokane: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1995), 124; Journal of Discourseslain , 1: 73 (Hyde/1853), 1: 83 (B. Young/1853), 1: 97 (G.A. Smith/1851), 1: 108 (B. Young/1853), 3: 246-47 (B. Young/1856), 4: 49-51 (J.M. Grant/1856), 4: 53-54 (B. Young/1856), 4: 173-74 (Kimball/1857), 4: 219-20 (B. Young/1857), 4: 375 (Kimball/1857), 6: 38 (Kimball/1857), 7: 20 (Kimball/1854), 7: 146 (B. Young/1859), 10: 110 (B. Young/1857); Sacred Hymns and Spiritual Songs (Salt Lake City: Deseret News/George Q. Cannon, 1871), 73-74, 314, 332, 337, 385; Sessions, Mormon Thunder, 125-30, 211; John W. Welch and John William Maddox, “Reflections on the Teachings of Brigham Young,” in Susan Easton Black and Larry C. Porter, eds., Lion of the Lord: Essays on the Life & Service of Brigham Young (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1995), 393 (which listed two of these sermons on “Blood Atonement”); Extensions of Power, esp. 246-57.

153.  Charles W. Penrose, Blood Atonement, As Taught By Leading Elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1884), 35; Roberts, Comprehensive History, 4: 126; Eugene England, Brother Brigham (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1980), 169, 182; Lowell M. Snow, “Blood Atonement,” in Ludlow, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 1: 131; Ronald W. Walker review in Journal of Mormon History 20 (Spring 1994): 170, 173.

154.  Extensions of Power, 242-61; “OFFICIAL DECLARATION,” Deseret Evening News, 14 December 1889, [2]; James R. Clark, ed., Messages of the First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 6 vols. (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1965-71), 3: 185, 186.

155.  Extensions of Power, 242, 245, 248-49, 257, 273. On these issues, also compare Will Bagley, Blood of the Prophets: Brigham Young and the Massacre at Mountain Meadows (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002) with Ronald W. Walker, Richard E. Turley Jr., and Glen M. Leonard, Massacre at Mountain Meadows (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).

156.  Melvin T. Smith, “Response to Paper by D. Michael Quinn,” John Whitmer Historical Association 2002 Nauvoo Conference Special Edition, 187.

157.  For statistics of polygamy in Utah, see Dean L. May, “People on the Mormon Frontier: Kanab’s Families of 1874,” Journal of Family History 1 (Winter 1976): 169-92; James E. Smith and Phillip R. Kunz, “Polygyny and Fertility in Nineteenth-Century America,” Population Studies 30 (September 1976): 465-80; Phillip R. Kunz, “One Wife or Several?: A Comparative Study of Late Nineteenth Century Marriage in Utah,” in Thomas G. Alexander, ed., The Mormon People: Their Character and Traditions (Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1980), 53-73; Larry Logue, “A Time of Marriage: Monogamy and Polygamy in a Utah Town,” and Lowell “Ben” Bennion, “The Incidence of Mormon Polygamy in 1880: `Dixie’ versus Davis Stake,” Journal of Mormon History 11 (1984): 3-26, 27-42; Marie Cornwall, Camela Courtright and Laga Van Beek, “How Common the Principle?: Women as Plural Wives in 1860,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 26 (Summer 1993): 139-53; Kathryn M. Daynes, More Wives Than One: Transformation of the Mormon Marriage System, 1840-1910 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001), 100-01 (for percentages from her research about Manti). For the publicly stated emphasis of LDS leaders that plural marriage was the required norm, see Daynes (72-73) and B. Carmon Hardy, Doing the Works of Abraham: Mormon Polygamy: Its Origins, Practice, and Demise (Norman, OK: Arthur H. Clark, 2007).

158.  Ray Allen Billington, The Protestant Crusade, 1800-1860: A Study of the Origins of American Nativism (New York: Rinehart, 1952); David Brion Davis, “Some Themes in Counter Subversion: An Analysis of Anti-Masonic, Anti-Catholic and Anti-Mormon Literature,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 57 (September 1960): 205-24; Leonard J. Arrington and Jon Haupt, “Intolerable Zion: The Image of Mormonism in Nineteenth-Century American Literature,” Western Humanities Review 22 (Summer 1968): 243-60; Gary L. Bunker and Davis Bitton, The Mormon Graphic Image, 1834-1914: Cartoons, Caricatures, and Illustrations (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1983); Craig L. Foster, “Anti-Mormon Pamphleteering in Great Britain, 1837-1860,” M.A. thesis, Brigham Young University, 1989; William O. Nelson, “Anti-Mormon Publications,” in Ludlow, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 1: 115-32; Craig L. Foster, “Victorian Pornographic Imagery in Anti-Mormon Literature,” Journal of Mormon History 19 (Spring 1993): 115-32; Terryl L. Givens, The Viper on the Hearth: Mormon Myths and the Construction of Heresy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997); any sample one might choose on the Internet of Evangelical diatribes against Mormonism.